September 1791 An die Königin Die Rechte der Frau Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin – Präambel – Artikel 1 bis 17 – Postambel Muster eines Gesellschaftsvertrages von Mann und Frau Anekdote Postskriptum She attempted to unmask the villains through the literary productions which she had printed and put up. In these pamphlets she advanced the public debate on issues that would later be picked up by feminists, such as Flora Tristan. [2] Gouges was also attacked by those who thought that a woman's proper place was not in the theatre. Britannica Explores. [24] However, Chaumette was a staunch opponent of the Girondins, and had characterised Gouges as unnatural and unrepublican prior to her execution. Geboren wurde sie allerdings schon 1748 (und nicht 1755). [2] Gouges attended the artistic and philosophical salons of Paris, where she met many writers, including La Harpe, Mercier, and Chamfort, as well as future politicians such as Brissot and Condorcet. Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748–November 3, 1793) was a French writer and activist who promoted women's rights and the abolition of slavery. 2007 French presidential contender Ségolène Royal expressed the wish that Gouges' remains be moved to the Panthéon. Her proposition for a political order remained largely unchanged. But having quickly perceived how atrocious the system adopted by the Jacobins was, she chose to retrace her steps. The one is ceaselessly taken as an example, and the other is eternally the execration of the human race. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s. [25], 1793 has been described as a watershed for the construction of women's place in revolutionary France, and the deconstruction of the Girondins' Marianne. Olympe de Gouges défenseur officieux de Louis Capet - (December 1792) this letter written to the Convention on 16 December 1792 offering to defend Louis XVI was also produced as a placard liberally posted around Paris; it was disregarded and derided. [10], Gouges opposed the execution of Louis XVI of France (which took place on 21 January 1793), partly out of opposition to capital punishment and partly because she favored constitutional monarchy. Born Marie Gouze in Montauban, France in 1748 to petite-bourgeois parents Anne Olympe Moisset Gouze, a maidservant, and her second husband, Pierre Gouze, a butcher, Marie grew up speaking Occitan (the dialect of the region). Wikipedia: Olympe de Gouges in der freien Enzyklopädie, Infos zu Bildmaterial und Lizenzen auf ›, Tod mit 45 Jahren am 3. She became an outspoken advocate against the slave trade in the French colonies in 1788. She drew a parallel between colonial slavery and political oppression in France. [35] He tried to change her name in the records, to Marie Aubry, but the name she had given herself has endured. They were widely circulated within and outside France. [40] Among other themes she wrote plays on the slave trade, divorce, marriage, debtors' prisons, children's rights, and government work schemes for the unemployed. [2], In Paris she started a relationship with the wealthy Jacques Biétrix de Rozières, but refused his marriage proposal. It is commonly believed that she was born and raised in a modest family, the daughter of Pierre Gouze, a butcher, and Anne Olympe Moisset, a maidservant. [31] At the 1848 Women's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, the rhetorical style of the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen was employed to paraphrase the Declaration of Independence into the Declaration of Sentiments,[33] which demanded women's right to vote. [30], American women began to refer to themselves as citess or citizeness and took to the streets to achieve equality and freedom. She is honoured in many street names across France, in the Salle Olympe de Gouges exhibition hall in rue Merlin, Paris, and the Parc Olympe de Gouges in Annemasse. After the execution of Louis XVI she became wary of Robespierre's Montagnard faction and in open letters criticized their violence and summary assassinations. "[32] Revolutionary novels were published that put women at the centre of violent struggle, such as the narratives written by Helen Maria Williams and Leonora Sansay. That piece demanded a plebiscite for a choice among three potential forms of government: the first, a unitary republic, the second, a federalist government, or the third, a constitutional monarchy. She usually was invited to the salons of Madame de Montesson and the Comtesse de Beauharnais, who also were playwrights. [20] Olympe's last moments were depicted by an anonymous Parisian who kept a chronicle of events: "Yesterday, at seven o'clock in the evening, a most extraordinary person called Olympe de Gouges who held the imposing title of woman of letters, was taken to the scaffold, while all of Paris, while admiring her beauty, knew that she didn't even know her alphabet.... She approached the scaffold with a calm and serene expression on her face, and forced the guillotine's furies, which had driven her to this place of torture, to admit that such courage and beauty had never been seen before.... That woman... had thrown herself in the Revolution, body and soul. She also called upon women to "shake off the yoke of shameful slavery". It has been suggested that she adopted this notion from Rousseau's letter To the Republic of Geneva, where he speaks directly to two types of Genevans: the "dear fellow citizens" or his "brothers", and the aimables et virtueeses Citoyenne, that is the women citizens. Olympe de Gouges, pseudónimo de Marie Gouze, nada en Montauban (Tarn-et-Garonne) o 7 de maio de 1748 e finada en París o 3 de novembro de 1793, foi unha escritora e abolicionista francesa, coñecida polas súas dúas obras máis famosas: A escravitude dos negros (1786) e a Declaración dos dereitos da muller e da cidadá (). Despite this she expresses loyalty for the ministers Jacques Necker and Charles Alexandre de Calonne. Gouges, Olympe de: Die Rechte der Frau und andere Schriften./ Les droits de la femme. In pre-revolutionary France there were no citizens, an author was the subject of the king. Only one whom chance had elevated to an eminent position can assume the task of lending weight to the progress of the Rights of Woman and of hastening its success. Explore {{searchView.params.phrase}} by color family {{familyColorButtonText(}} Engraved portrait of French feminist and revolutionary Olympe de Gouges . While politically active women were executed the Convention banned all women's political associations. Like men who could not pay the poll tax, children, domestic servants, rural day-laborers and slaves, Jews, actors and hangmen, women had no political rights. [15], After her arrest, the commissioners searched her house for evidence. Sie kann als eine der ersten Frauenrechtlerinnen bezeichnet werden. Gouges said in a semi-autobiographical novel (Mémoire de Madame de Valmont contre la famille de Flaucourt), "I was married to a man I did not love and who was neither rich nor well-born. Republicans discussed civic virtue in terms of patriotic manliness (la vertu mâle et répub-licaine). At the end of the 18th century influential political actors such as Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord and Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès were not convinced of the case for equality. [43], Gouges wrote her famous Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen shortly after the French Constitution of 1791 was ratified by King Louis XVI, and dedicated it to his wife, Queen Marie Antoinette. Furthermore active citizenship was two-tiered, with those who could vote and those who were fit for public office. [13], Gouges was associated with the Gironde faction, who were targeted by the more radical Montagnard faction. [39], Gouges signed her pamphlets with citoyenne. The slave trade lobby had mounted a press campaign against her play and she eventually took legal action, forcing Comédie-Française to stage l'Esclavage des Noirs. She must possess equally the right to mount the speaker's platform. Herausgegeben von Gabriela Wachter, Parthas, Berlin 2006, Mousset, Sophie: Women’s Rights and the French Revolution. In early 1789 she published Patriotic remarks setting out her proposals for social security, care for the elderly, institutions for homeless children, hostels for unemployed, and the introduction of a jury system. She also was associated with Masonic Lodges, among them the Loge des Neuf Sœurs that was created by her friend Michel de Cubières. The same year she wrote a series of pamphlets on a range of social concerns, such as illegitimate children. Marie Gouze was born into a petit bourgeois family in 1748 in Montauban, Quercy (in the present-day department of Tarn-et-Garonne), in southwestern France. Gouges' contemporary Madame Roland of the Gironde party became notorious for her Letter to Louis XVI in 1792. Olympe de Gouges, rojena Marie Gouze, francoska dramatičarka in aktivistka, * 7. maj 1748, Montauban, Francija, † 3. november 1793, Pariz.. Bila je ena izmed prvih bork za pravice žensk in njihovo enakopravnost v družbi. [27], Gouges' Declaration of the Rights of Woman and of the Female Citizen had been widely reproduced and influenced the writings of women's advocates in the Atlantic world. [12] In December 1792, when Louis XVI was about to be put on trial, she wrote to the National Assembly offering to defend him, causing outrage among many deputies. In her open letter to Marie-Antoinette, Gouges declared: "I could never convince myself that a princess, raised in the midst of grandeur, had all the vices of baseness... Madame, may a nobler function characterize you, excite your ambition, and fix your attention. Women were not granted political rights in revolutionary France, thus Gouges used her pamphlets to enter the public debate and she argued that the debate needed to include the female civic voice. She addressed her public letters, published often as pamphlets, to statesmen such as Jacques Necker, the Duke of Orléans, or the queen Marie-Antoinette. Olympe de Gouges, psewdonimu ta' Marie Gouze, (Montauban, 7 ta' Mejju 1748 – Pariġi, 3 ta' Novembru 1793), kienet drammaturga Franċiża li għexet matul ir-Rivoluzzjoni Franċiża.Il-kitba femminista u abolizzjonista tagħha kellha influwenza kbira. Sie schrieb vor allem Theaterstücke. Born Marie Gouze she first adopted the name Olympe de Gouges for her early plays. With the support of Rozières she established a theatre company. In language and practice this was a debate among men and about men. [41] Olympe de Gouges - Vorkämpferin für Frauenrechte – Französischen Revolution -Autorin – Theaterstücke - 1748 geboren, „Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und der Bürgerin“ (1791 -vom Revolutionstribunal am 3. The actress Véronique Genest read an excerpt from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. Today she is perhaps best known as an early women's rights advocate who demanded that French women be given the same rights as French men. Schreiben im Sinne der Aufklärung Olympe de Gouges nahm sie als Künstlernamen an. Olympe de Gouges wurde in Montauban in Frankreich geboren und verstarb in Paris (auf dem Revolutionsplatz, heute Place de la Concorde) . The new Républicaine was the republican mother that nurtured the new citizen. If you were less well informed, Madame, I might fear that your individual interests would outweigh those of your sex. Gouges also openly attacked the notion that human rights were a reality in revolutionary France. Finally, her poster Les trois urnes, ou le salut de la Patrie, par un voyageur aérien ("The Three Urns, or the Salvation of the Fatherland, by an Aerial Traveller") of 1793, led to her arrest. At the same time, she began writing political pamphlets. Dieser gehörte einem ortsansässigen Adelsgeschlecht an, ging aber bald nach der Geburt Maries nach Paris, wo er sich als Literat einen Namen machte und an di… In her letters she articulated the values of the Enlightenment, and commented on how they may be put into practice, such as civic virtue, universal rights, natural rights and political rights. "[11] Michelet opposed any political participation by women and thus disliked Gouges. Von Frauenfeinden bösartig diffamiert, von Repub… "[3] Her husband died a year later, and in 1770 she moved to Paris with her son to live with her sister. This posthumous characterisation of Gouges by the political establishment was misleading, as Gouges had no role in founding the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women. [42], In November 1788 she published her first political brochure, a manifesto entitled Letter to the people, or project for a patriotic fund. Clémence Bodoc, web rédactrice chez , nous décrit la « zone grise », moment où les interprétations diverses demandent l’avis de l’autre, du vis-à-vis, pour ne pas commettre une agression. Both Gouges and her prosecutor used this play as evidence in her trial. [38] Gouges signed her public letters with citoyenne, the feminised version of citizen. She was an advocate for abolishing slaves in the colonies, but is best known for her work as an early feminist writer. Her most famous work was the "Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen," the publication of which resulted in Gouges being tried and convicted of treason. She never married again, calling the institution of marriage "the tomb of trust and love". You love glory; think, Madame, the greatest crimes immortalize one as much as the greatest virtues, but what a different fame in the annals of history! Why Famous: Beginning her career as a playwright in pre-revolutionary France, Gouges became politically active after the outbreak of revolution in 1789. "[7], This was followed by her Contrat Social ("Social Contract," named after a famous work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), proposing marriage based upon gender equality. A partir de 1770 Olympe se mudó a París, con la principal intención de que su hijo obtuviera educación de calidad. Sie ist die Verfasserin der Erklärung der Rechte der Frau und Bürgerin von 1791. "[21], Her execution was used as a warning to other politically active women. The first act ends with Gouges reproving the queen for having seditious intentions and lecturing her about how she should lead her people. A passionate advocate of human rights, Gouges greeted the outbreak of the Revolution with hope and joy, but soon became disenchanted when égalité (equal rights) was not extended to women. 1783-1793 Theaterstücke, Romane und politische Schriften, die die politische Umsetzung der Aufklärung veranschaulichen. Citizens were defined as men over 25, were "independent" and had paid the poll tax. De Gouges' Sterbeort … [citation needed], In 1788 she published Réflexions sur les hommes nègres, which demanded compassion for the plight of slaves in the French colonies. But in revolutionary France there were only citoyen. One of the slave protagonist explains that the French must gain their own freedom, before they can deal with slavery. [8] Gouges did not approve of violent revolution, and published l'Esclavage des Noirs with a preface in 1792, arguing that the slaves and the free people who responded to the horrors of slavery with "barbaric and atrocious torture" in turn justified the behavior of the tyrants. [28] One year after its publication, in 1792, the keen observer of the French Revolution Mary Wollstonecraft published Vindication of the Rights of Woman. Across the Atlantic world observers of the French Revolution were shocked, but the ideals of liberté, égalité, fraternité had taken a life of their own. Gouges was defiant, she wrote "I'm determined to be a success, and I'll do it in spite of my enemies." Olympe de Gouges wurde als Marie Gouze am 07.05.1748 in Montauban, Südfrankreich, geboren. Thou hast need of a bath... thy death will claim things, and as for myself, the sacrifice of a pure life will disarm the heavens. Frequently these pamphlets were intended to stir up public anger.

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